An earlier universe existed before the Big Bang, and can observed today
Sir Roger Penrose in an interview with the Austria Press Agency at the Institute for Science and Technology, Klosterneuburg, Austria. Sir Roger Penrose Interview at the Institute for Science and Technology, Vienna, Austria - May 21, 2015 Sir Roger Penrose OM FRS is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science. He is Rouse Ball Emeritus Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, Oxford University - APA Picturedesk GmbH / Shutterstock / APA Picturedesk GmbH / Shutterstock
An earlier universe existed before the Big Bang and can still be observed today, said Sir Roger Penrose when he received the Nobel Prize in Physics.
Sir Roger, 89, who received the award for pioneering work in demonstrating the existence of black holes, said he found six "warm" points in the sky (called "hawking points") that are about eight times the diameter of the moon.
They are named after Prof. Stephen Hawking, who theorized that black holes “leak” radiation and eventually evaporate completely.
The time it takes for a black hole to completely evaporate is huge, possibly longer than the age of our current universe, so they can no longer be detected.
However, Sir Roger believes that "dead" black holes from previous universes or "eons" are now observable. If so, it would prove Hawking's theories were correct.
Sir Roger shared the 1988 World Physics Prize with Prof. Hawking for her work on black holes.
Sir Roger said from his home in Oxford: “I claim that Hawking radiation is observed.
“The big bang wasn't the beginning. There was something before the big bang and that is something we will have in our future.
“We have a universe that is expanding and expanding and all masses are decaying, and in my crazy theory this distant future is becoming the big bang of another aeon.
“So our big bang started with what was the distant future of an earlier age, and similar black holes would have disappeared through Hawking evaporation, and they would create these points in the sky that I call Hawking points.
“We see them. These points are about eight times the diameter of the moon and are slightly warmed regions. There is pretty good evidence for at least six of these points. "
Sir Roger recently published his theory of "Hawking Points" in monthly releases from the Royal Astronomical Society.
Roger Penrose (* 1931), British mathematician, with the Penrose tile system named after him. Penrose, known for his work in mathematical physics, studied this tile system in the 1970s. Complex, non-repeating patterns can be created with just two tiles of a given shape. Penrose has also worked on black holes, cosmology, quantum mechanics, and human consciousness. His awards include the Eddington Medal, the Royal Medal, the Wolf Prize and the Albert Einstein Medal. Penrose was knighted in 1994. Photographed 1989 - CORBIN O'GRADY / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
The idea is controversial, although many scientists believe that the universe operates in an ongoing cycle of expanding before contracting in a "big crunch" followed by a new big bang.
Sir Roger said that black holes were also controversial at one point. They were first theorized in 1783 by the English country pastor John Mitchell, who speculated that if an object became so dense, its massive attraction would prevent even light from escaping.
But even Albert Einstein dismissed it as mathematical curiosity rather than physical reality.
It was not until 1964, nine years after Einstein's death, that Sir Roger suggested that black holes are an inevitable consequence of general relativity.
Sir Roger has proven that when objects get too dense, they suffer a gravitational collapse to a point of infinite mass, where all known laws of nature called singularity cease.
His groundbreaking article is still considered to be the most important contribution to the theory of relativity since Einstein and proof of the Big Bang.
Sir Roger was in his mid thirties when he first came across the idea while walking to a tube station in London on his way to Birkbeck College. Now, 56 years later, he has finally been recognized for his work by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
"I think getting a Nobel Prize too early is a bad thing. I know scientists who got their prize too early and who spoiled their science.
"If you get a Nobel Prize in Science, it is good to get in when you are good and old, before you are absolutely done, if there is still something to do, that is my advice.
"It dates back to 1964, but it took a long time to realize the importance of black holes. So it's not surprising, and I think I'm just old enough now."
Sir Roger, alongside Professors Reinhard Gerzel from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and Andrea Ghez from the University of California, who have proven that there is a supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way, the honor of the stars around him .
Commenting on the award, Prof. Martin Rees, Astronomer Royal and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge University, said it was sad that Prof. Hawking was not alive to share the award.
“Penrose is amazingly original and inventive, and has been contributing creative insights for more than 60 years.
“I think there is consensus that Penrose and Hawking are the two people who have done more than anyone since Einstein to deepen our knowledge of gravity.
"Unfortunately, this award has been too late for Hawking to share the credit with Penrose."
Prof. Hawking answered some of the biggest questions humankind has faced in 2018:
Prof. Göran Hansson, General Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, announced the award, saying this year's award is about "the darkest secrets in the universe".
Prof. Toby Wiseman, Professor of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College London, said: “Penrose has shown that, under very general conditions, if you believe Einstein, if certain stars die, for example, black holes form. You have to be a physical reality. "
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